There’s a few factors to consider.
First, Gief’s standing and c.Jab’s both actually have frame disadvantage. If Gief hits Ryu, for example, with a JP/c.JP then Ryu can hit Gief with a JP/c.JP before Gief is even able to block. And this applies to weather Ryu was standing or crouching and it also applies to both hit and block.
I don’t know the exact numbers, but I think the opponent recovers 3 or 4 frames before Gief does, which is just enough time for the throw invulnerability to ware off – which is technically what makes the trap so good. EG. The trap works so well because if your execution was perfect then the grab frames occur on the exact frame that the opponents throw invulnerability ends (I think). Also, if Ryu mis-times his JP by a frame or two, then Gief’s SPD will land successfully – Which means Ryu can’t standing Short out of this trap because his SK is too slow.
So the short answer is: yes, opponents with quick light normals can jab/short out of most tick-throw 360 setups, but only with perfect timing.
However, I don’t know if this applies to resets or wake-ups (but I assume it applies to wake-ups). I only know for sure that it applies to ticking.
Also, I say “most” because VC tick-throw setups are inescapable.