Start by looking up frame data as you need it. “Hey! Why did I get SPD’d after my standing normal even though I was holding jump?”
Head to the internet to check the frame data, you find your normal left you at -3 on block. That’s a window just large enough for a reversal SPD punish.
Other things I learned from frame data was what in my arsenal could punish Gouken’s dash punches on block, Fei-Long’s Rekkas and Honda’s Buttsmash. These are things I looked up merely because I was curious about the specific moves. Over time, I ended up committing my entire character’s frame data to memory, merely because I ended up referencing it enough.
You don’t need to study it, far from it, but don’t be afraid to look at frame data for answers when you need it. Frame data holds all the answers to what’s punishable with what, along with frame traps and other useful tidbits… in magical spreadsheet format.