I think throws are perfectly fine in this game, and also very important to the way SFV was designed overall. In particular, the interaction between CCs and throws.
The threat of a CC is much greater than the threat of a throw in terms of damage and positioning. Talking to a friend of mine early in SFV, I was talking about my own bad habits and said “I need to press buttons less, and stop trying to tech throws as much.” My friend replied that he felt in SFV it was preferable to just take the throw and be reset to neutral a lot of the time, rather than risk being in a counter-hit combo situation.
It’s true that most characters have a very hard time maintaining pressure after a throw anywhere but in the corner. Cammy, for example, has amazing options to pressure after a combo ending in any Spiral Arrow, anywhere on the screen. After any of her throws, however, unless she’s in the corner she has no safe means to try and continue her offense - the game is reset to neutral. I believe this to be the case for the majority of the cast. Choosing to throw is conceding your pressure and resetting to neutral, so the reward is far less than actually connecting with an attack/combo.
One thing you might want to incorporate into your game is late teching. I’m not sure I’ll do justice to describing how or why this works, but basically, if you input a throw tech late-ish instead of ASAP when you think one is coming but are in a block string, you can time it late enough that you’re already in blockstun if they did an attack (so you’ll just block and the throw/tech animation never comes out), but if they tried to throw you, you’ll get the tech. This can be blown up by people staggering their block strings and deliberately using slower attacks if they know you’re doing this, but it can be a useful technique to enhance your defense.
Overall though I think throws are at just the right power level in this game. Fast enough to present a meaningful disincentive to hold down+back, option selects are being actively eliminated by Capcom so you actually have to make a choice on defense, but also relatively weak in terms of damage, and always reset the situation to neutral outside of the corner meaning you give up the option to maintain offensive momentum by using them. I also think Capcom was very deliberate about how throws were implemented in this game, and seeing high-level throw bait tactics are currently one of my favourite parts of the SFV metagame. Watching Daigo dash in~dash out to fake a dash in throw, or shimmy into s.mp xx CA hitconfirms is, to me, a big part of what makes this game exciting and interesting to watch.