Understand the Crouch tech option select, but do not rely on it too much.
To do this, you want to crouch and press light punch + light kick, which is the throw command. The throw command however will not come out as you are crouching, so you can still tech a throw. Additionally, you do not want to mash this as you will get hit out, or counter hit. Instead what you want to do is Crouch tech to the rhythm of how they are pressing buttons, so for every jab they do or whatever normal, then you press the light punch + light kick, while crouching, at the same time as they apply pressure.
Usually after 2 normals (light kick, light punch, medium punch, etc.) they will try to go for a throw, especially if you are blocking. If they add more normals, they are out of throw range unless they have a Kara throw (extended range throw) or SPD (spinning pile driver; command grab), so you are safe to stop crouch teching. Generally, you want to try and stand tech, the time where you expect a throw as it gives you an “extra” window to tech a throw. This “Extra” window is due to throws having priority over normals, so if you are within throw range, and they are trying to apply close jab pressure, or even a close frame trap, you can simply throw them out of it. But be wary of being baited by neutral jumps, or step backs, or even sweeps to punish your whiffed throw animation.
Also, since you play Gouken, most people will try to throw you more often then the majority of the cast due to you having an EX Counter. If you see people trying to throw you too often, they respect that you have a reversal that beats meaty setups (deep jump ins or early normals before your wake up), so they will tend to empty jump throw you, or tick throw. If you notice this too much, you can use the EX demon flip to get out of the corner sometimes, and if you’re feeling lucky, the EX tatsu.
You may notice that when you’re applying pressure, some characters may crouching light kick or crouching medium punch you out of your block strings sometimes, its because they are crouch teching. If you feel like you understand them enough, you can do an block string into a low counter for free damage. This is risky, but if you notice that they go to this option too much, it makes them scared to continue and may opt you to getting a free back throw as they are afraid to crouch tech.
In street fighter 4, throws are pretty hard to tech in general, so don’t be disappointed to be thrown around all day, some characters offense are pretty much built around throws and baiting throws (Balrog, Vega, Ken, Rufus, Rose, Chun li, etc.)
Here is a visual representation: