Question in title
Simple answer is yes.
Throws beat all attacks (unless they are invincible) if they are executed before the incoming attack’s hit phase.
In the SF2 series, throws come out in zero frames (instant) so they will definitely beat jabs.
In the SF3 series (3S) throws have 2 frames of startup so they will beat jabs if the throw is done as late as possible. If a throw grabs an attack it can’t be teched.
In the SF4 series, standard throws come out in 3 frames. Some characters have 3 frame jabs so if the jab comes out first it will beat a throw. If the attack and throw are done at the same time the throw will win.
Basically, if you expect a throw coming you should prepare to tech the throw or use a crouching tech (option select) if the game permits (3S, SF4/SSF4).
Better yet if you’re expecting a throw, back dash and then punish the throw
Throws are far too easily abused in 4. We need it more like third strike.