Edit: It looks like Capcom tried to implement an anti-cheat driver to prevent the use of the 1-round survival mod and other illegal tools. They went over the top and made our PCs vulnerable to all kinds of abuse. I used the method described in the link below to detect the driver and delete it.
Edit2: I succeeded in fixing the graphical issues: Although my resolution was set properly, it wasn’t recognized by the game. I reset all graphic options and it worked again.
So after installing the latest update on PC, SFV didn’t want to launch anymore. After restarting, the game launched, but it can’t connect to the internet. On top of that, all my character models look like I’m running the game on Low spec mode. But that’s not even the worst thing. While looking for an answer, I found something frightening on reddit/steamcommunity forums: It looks like SFV’s latest update opens up your PC for all kinds of abuse by creating a back door which can allow a non-privileged user to run code with permissions of the kernel: