Focus attacks can absorb one hit while it’s charging. You can dash cancel out of the focus attack. Armor breaking attacks, like a Flash Kick or Hurricane Kick will break through the Focus attack’s “armor.”
Meaty attacks are attacks timed on your wake up (when you’re getting up after getting knocked down) where the active frames of the attack (the time period when the attack will actually hit you) coincide with when you become vulnerable to being hit again. Meaty attacks are generally used to maintain pressure, although using normals is generally riskier in the SF4 series than in previous Street Fighters due to the ease of doing reversals. One example of a safe meaty attack is Guile throwing a slow Sonic Boom after he knocks you down. You’ll get up, and be forced to block, which will leave Guile advantageous.
Are you jumping in with an attack, and then trying to do another attack but getting thrown before it can come out? Or are you jumping and getting air-thrown? If the first, then you’re jumping in with attacks than don’t have enough blockstun (or missing your jump-in altogether), which will allow the opponent to throw you before your grounded attack comes out. If you’re getting air-thrown, then you’re just jumping predictably, and they’re snagging you out of the air (Guile f+LPLK, get out da sky son!). Only certain characters have normal air throws. As far as I know, I think they’re:
Guile, Cammy, Chun-Li, Vega. I think Ibuki has one, but I’m not 100% sure since I haven’t played SSF4 in a long time.